Science was available to us before writing. In order to infer from archaeological remains what was the content of the exact science. The prehistoric humans were known to be great observers of the sky and nature. There were able to track seasons with great precision without using any time tracking instruments. Yet, they knew exactly which time of the year it was. There are still unexplained sudden bursts of activities rating from 3000 years ago that clearly had a significant scientific importance.
There are large stone structures all over the world that we know nothing about how they got there and who built them and most importantly, how, because at that time, there were no tools that could support such projects. Yet, they are there. So, from a scientific point of view, these stone structures are quite remarkable and obviously very important for the future reckoning.
They are important scientifically because they can reveal the social and technical skills of a high order but, also, to understand the mystical combination of astronomical and religious purposes these structures had. The mathematical sophistication found in these structures was not ordinary for the time or common. Actually, it would be more common for the 20th century, not 3000 B.C.
So, there is something larger here, something that we fail to see. The interesting thing is that some of these structures required the practical knowledge of the Pythagorean theorem and the numbers and it seems that this has been known to the ancient people before the birth of Pythagoras.
Religion and astronomy all related to science
A fundamental combo of astronomy and religion was extremely important to the early history of science. The happenings in the sky were always the most irresistible intellectual puzzle to mankind. The human mind is always searching for regularity and order and we had no other choice but to seize upon the sky as the paradigm of our knowledge. That is why scientist call astronomy the queen of all sciences.
The west sphere of the world seemed to be far more interested in science than the east one but it is yet to be seen. The truth is, a mature form of science was developed in the West. Or at least that was what the world thought until they realized that the East had far superior knowledge in science than the West.
The first science to emerge anywhere, as noted, was astronomy. The relation with religion stimulated the development of mathematics. China was the first country in the world that knew how to track the positions of the stellar constellations and they devised a calendar and various other methods how to track celestial events.
Changes in the sky presaged changes on our planet and that is how astrology and astronomy were incorporated into the government system. In order to maintain order and legitimacy, an accurate calendar became a necessity. This resulted in the creation of an astronomical observations system that made eclipse observations possible today.